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THE UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA

RELEASE FORM

NAME OF AUTHOR Afroz Zaheeruddin TITLE OF THESIS "Nonformal Education: A Remedy for Educational and Development Crisis in Third World countries?" DEGREE FOR WHICH THESIS WAS PRESENTED Master of Education YEAR THIS DEGREE GRANTED Spning 1902. Permission is hereby granted to THE UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA LIBRARY to reproduce single copies of this thesis and to lend or sell such copies for private, scholarly or scientific research purposes only. The author reserves other publication rights, and neither the thesis nor extensive extracts from it may be printed or otherwise reproduced without the author's

written permission.

THE UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA

"Nonformal Education: A Remedy for Educational and Development Crisis in Third World countries?" by

/} Afroz Zaheeruddin

Aue SiS SUBMITTED TO THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF Master of Education IN

Comparative and International Education

Department of Educational Foundations

EDMONTON, ALBERTA

Spalnd, ood.

THE UNIVERSITY OF ALBERTA

FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES AND RESEARCH

The undersigned certify that they have read, and recommend to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research, for acceptance, a thesis entitled "Nonformal Education: A Remedy for Educational and Development Crisis in The Third World Countries?" submitted by Afroz Zaheeruddin in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of

Education in Comparative and International Education.

ABSTRACT

Education in Third World countries was conceived as an indispensable component for national development. Therefore, Since the Second World War, rapid expansion in student enrolments at all levels of education took place at leaps and bounds. In spite of the rapid expansion, achievement of universal primary education is far from a reality and illiteracy is still high. Most Third World countries have almost reached a financial breakpoint as far as educational resource allocation is concerned, and they have neither the financial nor the human resources to meet the rising demand for education. Moreover, the products of the _ formal education system are frequently not congruent with the human resource needs of the Third World countries. Rapid expansion NacmeUOtMOn yes DEOUghteeGrastic @ifalierain: :thesequality Tot education increasing high rates of dropouts and repetition resulting in the wastage of scarce resources, but has also fuelled rural-urban migration and urban unemployment. All these problems which characterize most Third World countries constitute what Phillip Coombs called "educational crisis".

The educational crisis has stemmed from the crisis in development. Relating development to the narrow concept of a materialistic and urban oriented economy, development Strategies were focussed on rapid industrialization often at the expense of agriculture and rural developmemt. Investment in education especially at the secondary and tertiary levels

was therefore conceived as essential to produce middle and

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high level manpower to accelerate economic growth in the small urban modern sector. The assumption was’ that if economic development measured in terms of Gross National Product, is taken care of, poverty will take care of itself, unemployment will be eliminated and income will be redistributed. But the fact is that although the development policy enabled an increase in the economy; it failed to end poverty, eliminate unemployment and redistribute income adequately. These problems constitute "development crisis". Expansion of educational oportutnities that claimed to accelerate economic growth, to raise standards of living especially of the poor, to generate employment opportunities for all and to bridge the gap between the modern and traditional sectors and between the rich and poor, seemed to be an exaggeration on the part of formal education. The crisis has intensified in most Third World countries which are experiencing serious stress from resource constraints, disparities in the development of modern and traditional sectors of economy, increasing unemployment and underemployment, decline in real wages, growing inequalities in income and educational opportunities and rapidly increasing numbers below the poverty line. Since formal education alone cannot solve all the problems and enable the achievement of wider development goals, nonformal education, an alternative strategy, which is usually less expensive and more effective is advocated as a viable measure to fill in

the void created by formal education. This strategy would

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contribute both to the individual and national development overcoming some of the education and development crisis that most Third World countries are facing.

This thesis first attempts to provide an in depth study of the education and development crisis in the Third World countries concentrating on their causes and consequences. In the light of the crises, a rationale is developed for nonformal education that 1S Supportive of the new concepts of development. Secondly, three case studies of nonformal education in three countries of differing socio-political framework - China, Tanzania and Botswana - illustrate to show that in theory and as well in practice, nonformal education in its multitude of variation, has proved to be a Viable system of educational delivery. Its operations are more appropriate in terms of effecting relevant awareness of skills, knowledge and attitudes to the people at a relatively low cost and with no elaborate permanent establishment. Nonformal education can support and further a more equitable development, but the degree of its Success depends upon the socio-political structure of the country. Nonformal education can be more successful when it operates in a society that has already undertaken major structural changes or motivated towards them. If a society is neither committed nor motivated to such structural changes, then it will continue to be marginally accepted by the masses who deem it as a "Second rate education". The main reason is the

socio-economic rewards that nonformal education offers which

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are often less than that are offered by the formal system of education.

The low socio-economic benefits accruing from nonformal education impose a severe limitation. Until positive steps are taken to overcome the limitations, the logical solution for most Third World countries is to develop nonformal education as a sytem parallel to formal education. With the continued expansion (gradual) of formal education, Third World countries must strenghten the existing nonformal education and at the same time make provision for it to be a ‘supplement', 'complement' and an '‘alternative' to formal education wherever necessary, exploring the areas. for expansion where the demand is likely to be more and

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Dr. M.K. Bacchus for his supervision, guidance and encouragement during the thesis work.

I am thankful to my committe members, Dr. G. Eyford and professor D.R. Pugh for their critical review of the thesis and helpful suggestions.

I would also like to thank my husband, M. Zaheeruddin for his encouragement and moral support. Finally, thanks to my parents whose encouragement, love and faith in my

abilities have been a constant source of inspiration to me.

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Table of Contents

Chapter Page Wome NEROUDUGBIIUONU Ps texe «to's citetetaterete tte) cceveuats aaetekatehe St Aa A ee Aa Pomme SCKCuOUNCE TOM LITOMDMOO LEM Gr. tclcveleie sieiciele eselatntaleie «eis sic.e eit DP MR ERLICH) LCI cuatet, taaaiemene oMebeMemeeetcRs «tele. 68e ot) chek evel eer ers « cleteis lets oan POE UL DOS Cie ete ctete. sc cles Od AG SOO LC CF ooo eee ese MG CNOUO HOG Via-ielsta?eFetcrer tetetere creteiel sickorn «elie laltese «16 Sah open 5% 18 POE OCOAN NAA VOUE Oc acteitercdcicclerelene sie. < ie arehe cheretedbenehetete shee s 20 CrecRI bi CISM (OF FORMAL?) SCHOOLING: 2... 0.4 Sueielslstetetaist e's )s A BAAE SA 23

Pies 3 Institutional Criticism ete tect crc ah cree rictotencks Poremeee ciaeeee oO

AVCHNOrEtaLianism iets ets Peers Aarts ps Pyaar” Syme een MAE | Bo Uc aiteOnmn Smaaee OMMOG Ut Yi. co mes eiel cletelelersis «satel ete SU

Schools promote Competition and Discourage Co-operation SEMESTER RE Teles, a otahonchensietclelelevciesctetcieresieias

2.2 Schools Perpetuate Social and Economic Inequality .36

Social Relation of School and Workplace ....40

Inequality in Schooling and Social Reproduction eee Teer Te fateh otc craic etnies teneie ents ket

Socio-economic Background and Educational Outcome =e Ay ee eo RS Ph Ay OS Eee eA ney ene ee Pe

3. EDUCATION AND DEVELOPMENT CRISIS IN THE THIRD WORLD

COUNTRIES

CPeOMON Cees CMe leah chs tere! a vs lehelie cls « cfelisie rs lel'enel are} eetsieysls ielelepst ao

Sealeeritical Issues of Formal Education in the Developing Countries SE ae ORD Fe eR, A Mental DM pleat ck Feuidy ba PS)

Discrepancy Between Educational Demand and Supply Pe a emer aa Ma RE corde oes8 Ie 4 hi ayy Smee PPAR I oy Fy ha. Se

Rising Educational Expenditure and Limited Resources Rica cube LetePe late te meee tele tekeiokedade ei casin twit cieituens eke OF

Wastage in Education: High Rates of DEO DOU Sma NOM NG Gc 6 Smee shelter este leleleisies ou) ¢icisls Oo

Qualitative Aspects of Education =

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Perpetuation of Outmoded and Irrelevant Curriculum mys eer AMEE UARA REE A AUP Pe my Pr tatr-p pig al |

Problem of Unemployment among Educated ..... 84 Ruva ReUrbanmM? o rato cic. « « chas-s is ktete On oi Cent PUM DE VE LODMCT Cab tetttetetslct. alc rets 'e1clere tetsv stele aie = lets oo

Traditional Concept of Development ........101

Outcome of Traditional Concept of Developmen tie. c.itese ts 6H bi A GE OE od ae bos Changing Concept of Development ....... rare ialic

CONCEPTUAL EZAT! ON OF ENONFORMAT SHDUCATION (icc ac alee ocse Fh?

Amie CCeriaGiVeS CO. nObMalleBhOuCca LION, Sei « celeste Sale 117

4.2 Concepts and Definitions of Nonformal Education ..130

4,3 Modal-defining Characteristics of Formal and

NontormaleEducat 1onalmProgrammes (2. cine < ce A area) Aer SMe ULC tL ONY geuatecetctevcteista a elete 0) siete) sfeveele ciel ere cleterecere 20 ee re MMe CLUE MEN) Cammer seed aie: ccotercrerahel seebel onal «4. 6 ose s0,ca.a, oro; o enon OM Cee weiS) | PRET S IRS 8 Be sy Ce PO eo Pe Pam Rae eee CONC e Tr OLmC UGTgtC UL UM MESS hey. Creve cledsi chs setebeley els voce, LZ oes wOeSBLOR aeck op ec obes copes BOO COD GC oe eee: Se Ce Le MAM OMDUL At) ON Mestarthorte sietcts ciel dle eiete «4; ahe1ers «cee Uk tes 1 WERENT! ogy a an pan ot 66 Os tho Morr o> OUP Ome Cone Ave CC 1G Meet Nees tales tcyel ciel < oleis sua ie-oie ec) ote cheless sie eteteuest a (a Gh ies JOE SITES AHL Gis CAG eens Bt OG GKEO POST On COGS AOS NEes Asie CON tO la casks ac stcsnt ers etetete] chonepetcile iets st olehere cisicteteren irae AMS ail bw COS tal eles re tetessrauetsiatebenetel svelekehrasbesershels stetelsdaret attest mas

NONFORMAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAMMES IN THE THIRD WORLD ..152

5.1 Work and Study Education in The People's Republic On China Serene eta fot ec Te th tet cee reat coke eie ton ie eed eiete be

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Seabee lne: Greate erotwetariat-Cultural Revolution. 2158

5.1.3 Education and! Productive Labour in China:

WORKRONGEOCUG Ver GOQhaAMME Sa uctessletatcreiebeteis cls iene 164 blot eee Begining of Work-Study PiCUicl cel Ol mmansdetcnescic voleuete te le rete ncbebe tapers elle 4s 164

Dealicie 2am ONCCULSMOLmWOLK- Study, baucatlony waco

5.1.3.3 Productive Work and Education in WiC eriGa int © llamerctencl otevetctetslarctets ie ciersserene 169

belo tar WODKeandeotudy in Primary Schools) 172

Sialts. Oe WODK and Study in ‘Middle /

SECON Ca EVEESCNOOM SIR ert. stores co tete re towehe te Gs)

Sales. Ou tLanSrereOL Unban Youth) .Down. to Chescountmysiders. .tst a Saas is Ga oe 184

5.1.4 Decentralization and Centralization of DEGES LON mMakinn Gaeetctere sheiele lel ebetarate crete che fate’ + +s ie ets 188 Pert OS CO CLD Cum egtt eis tatetete: on cleccresoleteceiclate iets tstalclece ete 192

Radio Study Group Approach To Mass Education Campaigns in The Republic of Tanzania ...... pheVe beset. 198 See ae BACK GNOUGMONMTANZAN 1 Gas. clcle ec aie sata We tote tats ‘emae oo

5.2.2 Approach to Mass Education Through Radio ..202 Br 2it2 al eES COON OM GLOUDS aces vere leieus rere loke te ve 10 eine 205 Omen see Ehem@CONCeDemOterA wRaG) Omer UCYVeGlOUDs. wie eisis wie 206

be ee lees LOT Cal Development of the Masseeducat ions Campal gnaw ct. erect Ou

5.2.4 Aims and Objectives of the Campaign ..... een 5 2. OePreliminaryewoOrk sO fethne sCampa loin tren nee FAN ah patieks | Publicity Rie liote fete hs tekelone tal ctecele tote cet eieisieieenue

6 22.5.2, -Productione sanaseDrseri bution of PrantedsMaterial® .en.e POPS Ee visa ete: wea ote cowl oe

5.2.6 Clientele . eeeees TOMES TOME ee Res see ta es a be sa os bo a ate He te ID Dh CVOLGanwzatd OleOremadio SteudyaGrOoupSiss 6 lets a 2ilis

Oecd wee Recrui tLmentuangslraining, o£. group

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OAC ET SU eedePetereds oheie Lie thetatats care eieretotetes 219

Det eo LOGGOm Ura ting 1oVGt OMe cl ets let ots 220 ier CmeOL atl tz ti Olid apn © GWOlRS tei. cle cere ecetele tee By A x Dee eee LNOU OL OG Var wetcmetcatinre ciate sc reuene averclete cae es pease 224

SF 2s MMA GEL VEtieseot thesSstudy Group ....c2o

Bre ean COS Ueieuen. fe cena Cee rere et eS at ches 0 See Busy eiteele cece PPR Seems Value tLOnmofe cies CAampal Ona... + sisis «tere sooaoot 231 De AmOV CT At MmODSE RVG Cl OM .\e\s.0-+ «cco cee ele de ste trees en ACY:

5.3 Employment-Oriented Nonformal Education: Brigade Training ineThe Republic of Botswana ...... Seetetereie 240

5.3.1 Background On The Republic of Botswana ....240 Ses ecm Ux Deramentmauwarhne swaneng Hill School ........ 247 Seo Lem DeauninGmoOr ea hnesBrigadeR trainings se. « 250

Seo.s eAimSmand Objectives of The Brigades ~......251

Sicha, Togs wwe Che Wea: Wieb ie (Vel? 5 A ee hes Oe Zoe De ACL DOGMO LMG tl ACCS mm cteserel dia aietevcretete icielelsfetate ts etalece 254 Sa sile EH Wee aieree le Rae nin 4 aa AS pe IS! SRO MM LE Xt Lem Or’ Gadel... 6.6. Siehevetehsietene asic oO Oris AOL OME OLMe lS me BT 1 GAC a eis csi te crore fete tersl eee Ou Be sO a memOUNC bee Dr GAGeS Scveteus << retsiehs fore ce creecqenerc OU SSN OT LEC 1 Ca MeGUirT LOU LUM lets eretsrsle wistechetels eeu Seo COSL Sacer. eyo aaos KAAS OR MOS Ss mieielereha\ene aueventiatare 264 5.3.9 Brigade Movement and the Government ..... ee OL,

5.3 10, Some Problems of hesprigqageS@.w peer t

5.3.11 Overall Observation of The Brigades .......274

Bt LESSONS at LOMet NesCaASCESULUGISSEe is sists ec icicisss so ciereier ei 2lo

6. LIMITATIONS AND POSSIBILITIES OF NONFORMAL EDUCATION .285

aye BIBLIOGRAPHY EEE eee nc, teers ateketeietere elatale le \6sc 00:4. ehe.e pieael Oo

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List of Tables and Figures

Tables Page

DeeeGlowtculoOfennroimentebys bevels From 1950 to, 1975.2. .55

II. Wastage in the Primary and Secondary Schools around SG Oirekonctavcter en eek temenedchectie cece Gy? O+.. O 70/46" 0 CO (O70 R18 aay by BOAR She

III. Expenditure on "Wakati wa Furaha": Mass Education Campaign in TAN a LPO Teer ne os ateholesateaste sfckouhetcrhemiee ss

IV. Expenditure on "Mtu ni Afya": Mass Health reluicie: tee O tim Cain el LC Un ctemetetere Etats lelels s' <1s1 etaieliieieleitre ete exriaicts 000 V. List of Activities most Commonly Carried out by the Study Groups, and the Percentage of Groups Picts GC CAC MAC lL Viteeele sin tele teletcterecteteteke cicisisiele ere o AOe

VI. Health Index Table For Dodama Showing the Degree of Change in Health Practices in Four Selected Ujamaa VEMBIENS SStG ss n BAS RH OSE RD os SE rs)

VII. Initial Capital For Brigades at Serowe in The Retry eV Gu PaO CS Wiel Dal welcecks clone tadstsistehckeve teleqaiels less tale ts ele dee 204

VIII. Serowe Building Brigade Recurrent Expenses for VOLS, BA A eye Re A I ae ee a A ot)

Figures

I. Relationship Between Formal, Informal and NEES [oS Gee Ren oo ak ae hi Oo oe Were areare aa Ue

II. Staged Training System for "Mtu ni Afya": Mass Healenesouca ti One Campad Gil. te sichebetekeretcselers crs teanctorsiaeepses terete

III. Preliminary Work Schedule of the Mass Education Campaign? SiWakat lewas Purana tule tmisiciiel ite eu

xiii

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1. INTRODUCTION

Schools as '‘'institutions' and formal education as "channel of knowledge and skills" are of recent origin in the history of mankind. Learning of skills required for Survival is as old as the aneeeneC of homosapiens. With the development of civilization learning of skills acquired family and group characterstics, but when work became Specialized and division of labour became pronounced, knowledge and skills began to increase. It became necessary not only to preserve the increased knowledge and skills, but also to promote and disseminate them. For the functions of preservation, promotion and dissemination of knowledge and skills, special institutions called 'schools' were created and special groups of people designated as 'teachers' became responsible. Initially, the amount of knowledge that was preserved and had to be disseminated was limited and the major agencies involved were religious bodies supported by voluntary efforts.

However, compared with non-industrialized nations,' the schooling system in western societies” grew rapidly and was finally taken over by the State. Several reasons have been identified as contributing to the growth of educational system in western societies. Industrialization shifted

'The terms 'non-industrialized', 'less developed’, "emergent', 'developing', 'underdeveloped', use for Third World countries will be used interchangeably in the thesis. 2 Western societies refer to the developed nations, hence the terms 'industrialized', ‘technically advanced', 'developed' and ‘metropolitan nations' will be used interchangeably.

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productive work from family to factory and demanded parents' labour. This removed the children from their family environment for a greater part of the day and resulted in the need for alternative supervision. Hence, it was necessary to create schools not only to look after the children, but also to prevent them from committing crime or getting into mischief, and also to provide them with the necesSary moral education which they were lacking through their parents' long absence from home. *

Large-scale employment Of uneducated Or rather unlettered workers in the mills, workshops, factories and industrial and commercial establishments also posed certain important problems. Workers' education became a felt need noceecnlyantore protecting athe: worker'\stiown rights and interests (this was achieved because of the concern of unions), but also for ensuring industrial efficiency and stepping up production. Later on, when the industrial society needed certain types of individuals with given knowledge, skills and values, it was essential to create institutions to prepare individuals with such skills. So schools became important 'basic institutions' of society which began to grow under the authority of State consuming increased resources and increaSingly taking over the role of

manpower preparation for the new industrial order. A _ fair

7Robert Raikes was the first man to recognize the need for educating the children of factory workers of the pin industry at Gloucester in England, and so started the "sunday school" movement in 1780.

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proportion of the outputs produced by schools was absorbed by the educational system itself as it expanded to meet the growing demand for education. Formal education thus became increasingly indispensable for a greater number of individuals and for the society as a whole. Gradually, the educational system in economically more developed societies achieved great significance, size and status.

At the end of the Second World War, industrialized nations had developed a large-scale system of formal education for all children. Most of these societies were able to provide free primary and secondary education for every child. Provision was also increased for higher education because it was believed that the expansion of the system at this level was fully justified as a good investment. Hence, the educational expenditures of the industrialized countries increased. Similar educational policies were advocated for the emerging countries of the

Third World.

1.1 Background To The Problem

In the post-war period, most of the colonised territories in Asia and Africa won their political independence, formally putting an end to the colonial era. An important feature of the post colonial period was the increasing acceptance of an idea of equality of men and

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countries. The General Assembly of the United Nations in

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1948 adopted and proclaimed the 'Basic Rights' of man in the hope of promoting peaceful co-existence of all people, but it soon realised that harmony, equity and justice cannot be achieved if great inequalities in economic development were allowed to persist. Therefore, the first priority was to bridge the gulf separating the miniority of rich nations‘ and the majority of poor countries,*® which comprised of two thirds of humanity living in servile poverty, ignorance and disease.

The production oF scientific and technological discoveries, the development of Keynesian economic theories, and the growth of economies and prosperity in the west led to an illusion that a remedy for the evils in the world had been found. A cure had been invented which would solve all pnemeptoblems Of —poor snations. “in? ~the® slight of ‘such an illusion, President Truman's Point Four seemed delightful when he announced:

eoeeee we must embark on a bold new programme for making the benefits of our scientific advances and industrial progress available for the improvement and growth of underdeveloped areas. More than half the people of the world are living in conditions approaching misery. Their food is inadequate. They are victims of disease. Their economic life is primitive and stagnant. Their poverty is a handicap and a threat both to them and to more prosperous areas. For the first time in history, humanity possesses the knowledge and the skill to relieve the *Western industrialized nations, the so called developed and metropolitan countries are the rich nations ‘The poor nations are the ex-colonies, which though politically independent, were economically dominated by their metropole countries. These poor nations are now known as the Third World, underdeveloped, less developed or developing countries.

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suffering.‘

The only solution to the problems of underdevelopment among poor nations was to enable them to accelerate their economic growth. There was much discussion on how the phase of "economic take off" to use Rostow's terminology’ could be reached; and whether the developing countries could somehow take short cuts to 'catch up' with the technically advanced countries.

Physical capital which could accelerate development was found to be a missing factor in the Third World. Capital that was granted to Europe under the Marshall Plan and capital given to Japan to restore its devastated industries, proved productive. With such success, it seemed to many policy makers that a Similar infusion of physical capital in the developing countries would also yield similar results. But no such development resulted when the U.S. aid was given to Indonesia and Burma. The dominant explanation given for

differential results was that Western Europe possessed

‘Quoted in Alan B. Mountjoy: Developing the Underdeveloped Countries. London: Macmillan, 1971, p.9.

"See W.W. Rostow: The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto. London: Cambridge University Press, 1960. Rostow divides the stages of development into five stages - (a)preindustrial or traditional, (b)transitional, (c)the "take off", (d)drive to maturity and (e)the high mass consumption period. Rostow argues that development process does not inevitably generate crisis and misery. On the contrary, in the final stages of development, high mass consumption assures the masses a very comfortable material life. The key to the realization of development is simply a set of social circumstances which allows a continual large net investment accompanied by approximate rationality on the part of investors. To Rostow, the high mass consumption society seemingly transforms nearly all of the features that characterize a typical underdeveloped society.

trained and educated human resources: the basic technological capacities and the manpower with modern values necesSary to complement the physical capital effectively. Such capacities were absent in the Third World, and _ “so, these economies were unable to utilize effectively the physical capital available to them.* |

In view of such an explanation, it was suggested that continued economic growth would be primarily dependent upon highly trained manpower, rather than on mere traditional economic inputs of ordinary labour and physical capital. Given this interpretation, it was argued that continued increase in economic growth could best be achieved by focussing public investment in higher educational expansion. Most economists demonstrated the importance of education and estimated its contribution to the economic growth by various forms of calculations such as the 'Social rate of return'.’ Expenditure in education came to be regarded as an investment in mankind with returns on education both, social and private to be at least as high as those of physcial capital.

In support of this concept, an American economist, Theodore Schultz, postulated the theory of ‘human capital'

®Irvin Sobel: "The Human Capital Revolution in Economic Development: Its Current History and Status". Comparative Education Review, June 1978, No. 2, p.280.

*Independent work of Theodore W. Schultz (1961) and F. Dennison (1964) in the 20th century shed light on how important education is in bringing about economic growth. Using different approaches they estimated that about 20% of the growth rate over the period 1929-1957 was due to increases in educational level of the labor force.

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that shifted the traditional concept of economic growth related to accumalation of physical capital to economic Growtheerelated to human’ capital formation —-— both for individual and national development.'°® Harbison and Myers'' and others, early in the 1960s, identified the importance of education to the economy as being chiefly through the provision of trained and especially high level manpower. Human capital theorists through the late 1950s and early 1960s succeeded in convincing the government, educators and public alike about the validity of their prescription, and this approach was enthusiastically received both in developed and less developed countries. Regardless of the country or nature of its educational systems, the end result was to improve access to educational System at all levels. Human capital theory not only promised hagheelLevel of national success through educational expansion, but also high levels of individual upward mobility without any threat of downward mobility to the already privileged group. Thus a more egalitarian society would be produced. Third World countries were convinced that the wealth, prosperity and power of the industrialized countries could be attained by replicating the formal education system of these countries. Therefore, with this

faith in human capital theory, developing countries in order

'°See T. Schultz: "Investment in Human Capital". American Economic Review, 51, 1961.

‘'Frederick H. Harbison and C.A. Myers: Education, Manpower and Economic Growth. New York: McGraw Hill, 1964.

to achieve economic growth, began to build up their formal system of education on western model as a matter of highest DELROLrUty.

Expansion of education system in developing countries became indispensable not only to achieve rapid economic growth of the country, but also for other reasons. To run a modern nation without any continued dependence on _ foreign expertise, an adequate supply of a whole range of professional expertise at all levels was required. These requirements for the emergent nations were worked out using the techniques of manpower planning. The Report of Ashby Committee showed the value of manpower planning and how the systems of higher education could be developed to meet the requirements of trained personnel for economic growth and for national self-reliance. It even proposed that this development should be accelerated by short term importing of teachers and other trained experts in key positions of expansion.'?

The other reason was humanitarian. The General Assembly of the United Nations agreed that every one had the right to education (Article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights) @sandsethisstzrichtsellike: totherusrights. wwaser toe be recognized without discrimination in terms of race, religion and sex. So in the early 1960s members of Unesco organized

three conferences. In the Karachi Conference, delegates from

'2See Investment in Education. Report of Ashby Commission, Federal Ministry of Education, Lagos 1960.

Asian countries devised a plan to provide universal, complulsory and free primary education for the minimum length of seven years prior to 1980. In the Addis Ababa Conference for African member countries, recommendation was made to introduce universal, compulsory and free primary education of six years before 1980 and the Conference at Santiago de Chile for Latin American member countries demanded that all countries in this region provide universal, compulsory and free primary education of six years by 1970.'*® All these three conferences set a target date of 1980 as the latest to universalize primary education to. meet the manpower needs and also enable the elimination Of illiteracy'* in Third “World countries. One result. ‘of these conferences wasS an increased pressure on political leaders of Third World nations (from within and outside) to provide free universal primary education for all children. However, the initial enthusiasm for providing primary education was overtaken by the needs of secondary and higher levels of education for nation building and manpower Cre Pri Gy.

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‘*Ladislav Ceyrech: Problems of Education in Developing Countries. New York: Praeger Publications, 1967, pp.4-27. '4C, Anderson's data of cross-Sectional analysis of England, United States and other countries support a generalization that 40% of adult literacy or primary enrollment is a threshold for economic development. All countries with less than 40% literacy were in the poorest income bracket - less than $300 per capita - while those with over 90% literacy were in the richest income bracket - more than $500 per capita". in C. Anderson: "Literacy and Schooling on the Threshold: Some Historical Cases" in C. Anderson & M.J. Bowman (ed) Education and Economic Development. 1965, p.347.

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On the whole, within developing countries there were

many formulations in government plans for the development of

education, which D'Aeth maintains were usually couched in

idealistic rather than practical terms and often expressing

hopes such as following:'>

That better education would overcome ignorance and _ so open the way for individuals to lead richer lives, to establish better social relationships within communities, and so enable the local communities to gain in self-respect and become more democratic and responsible, more able to take initiatives for their own improvement and to become outward looking.

That to improve education would contribute to economic growth, thus raising the general standard of living, and helping towards better employment opportunities, health, housing etc.

That education._through the aid of literacy, would improve the quality of rural life, especially agricultural works and increase opporturnities for a richer cultural existence.

That it would improve the training in skills for the development of industries, and also modern. social services, increasing the readiness of the recepients to learn new techniques required for innovation and change.

That it would be the most effective means of developing a more equitable society, with better opportunities for individuals in the countryside as well as in towns, with less extremes of poverty and.affluence. It would also develop a cadre of responsible leaders and administrators. Hopefully such a society would have fewer tensions and frustrations, and so its members would be more satisfied and peaceful.

That education would contribute to nation building, by fostering a growing respect for each nation's. own culture and traditions, and by aiding the development of political maturity, which would be capable of combining orderly leadership with freedom of thought and expression and respect for individual rights.

'SRichard D'Aeth: Education and Development in the Third

Worldeshinglandemoaxonehouse Di Creheath Utde, 1975) .pp.9-10.

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These viewsS expressed ina variety of ways resulted in an Optimism) of the Third® World epolitical leaders about education and their efforts to develop ambitious plans for the expansion of their educational system. The inevitable worldwide expansion of the educational system made education a big industry in every nation involving about one fifth to one fourth of the total population, with an employment of one to two percent of labour force and consuming 5-6% of the National budget. In Third World countries, education is the largest industry and the greatest consumer of public revenues. For example, in Nigeria an annual compound growth rate of expenditure on education in the period 1960-1966 averaged about 15% as compared with an annual growth rate in Gross National Product (GNP) of about 4 percent.'* Education System in Third World countries is now the largest employer of the outputs from secondary school and institutions of higher education.

Planned and unplanned educational changes in Third World countries resulted in increased educational enrolments and costs. Between 1950-1970 the aggregate increases in enrolments were 211%, 465% and 511% in the primary, secondary and tertiary levels respectively.'’ Educational

expenditures also increased at a spectacular rate, leaving

ROS s sO De ‘7World Bank: Education Sector Working Paper. 1974, p.13.

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little margin for growth in the 1970s.'* The phenomenal universal growth of educational enrolments during the period 1950-70 is termed a “world educational revolution" by John Meyer and his associates'® who applied a variety of models and theories to explain this phenomenon. They identified

four features that contributed to this revolution:

PeeUnGom DUCSULt. "by salle mations “of national -economic development goals, which require "rational planning and technically trained personnel"?°;

2. the "recognition" by political leaders that an educated citizenry was a valuable asset for the development of the nation;

3. the "insistence" in the contemporary world on "progress" and the wide spread confidence in education as a device for transforming individuals and society; and

4, the "equating" of "development" with economic’ success within a capitalist world economy, and the "pursuit" by National elites to use education aS a means to achieve this end.?'

The two decades (1950-70) of aSwiectAenrsn expansion can be described as the golden era of formal education that was accompanied by a feeling of optimism, eSpecially in the developing world. However, at the end of 1960S and early 1970s skepticism and disillusionment concerning education had set in confronting the First World, the Second World and the Third World. Educators and social scientists became

increaSingly disillusioned with the potential of formal *®Don Adams: "Education and Development". Comparative Bducation: Review, 62:12 2&e5 0197s ps Oe

‘? John W. Meyer et al.: "World Educational Revolution: 1950-70 (ee SOcuolOgyeotmhauca ta Onn oUrmm a JeeD wa 207

7°A, Waterston: "Development