JPRS 77575 12 March 1981

Worldwide Report


No. 142



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JPRS 77575

12 March 1981 WORLDWIDE REPORT LAW OF THE SEA No. 142 CONTENTS WORLDWIDE AFFAIRS USSR Wante Original New Zealand Fishing Quota Reatored (THE NEW ZEALAND HERALD, 90 Jam BL). ccc ccc cece eee e een wwwwnnes l ASIA INTER-ASIAN AFFAIRS New Zealanders Rap Japanese Fisheries Research Team (THE PRESS, 27 Jan Gh)ccsscscssccccccsescessesesesececesesssees 3

Taiwanese Boats in Squid Netting Test in New Zealand ‘aters (THE EVENING POST, 14, 16 Jan 81; THE NEW ZEALAND HERALD, BD TGR Thc cccccccccccccccccccccccccceccceccece TITTTTTiTiiy 4

New Zealand Condittons Beginning of Experiment Initial Catches Poor

Thai Fishermen Claim To Be Victims of Vietnamese Pirates

(BAN MUANG, 30 Jam Bl). cccccccceeeseeeeeeeeeessesesesessesseess 6 Malacca Strait Pollution Contro) Signed

(THE WORKING PEOPLE'S DAILY, 14 Peb www wwnues 8 ROC Wants Fishing Accord With Philippines

CEA, 9 TR Th pe cccccccccccccccccccccccccccccccececcececccccees 9



Prawn Fishing 10

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Squid Fishing Season Opens, Excellent Catches Reported

(THE PRESS, 19 Jan TTT TiTiT seepeeeeee Covernment Study Reveals Richest, Poorest Fishing Waters (THE PRESS, 20 Jan ———— seeeee sereepeeeeeee LATIN AMERICA


Chile, Peru, Beuador Condemn Sea Limit Viol :tione

(EFE, 24 Jan PPnesceeooeceeeeeseees cease ceececceceeoeeseet ee Briefs Cuban Ships Warned on 200-Mile Limit CHILE Editorial Sees Soviet Designs on Mar De Chile (Editorial; EL MERCURIO, 27 Jam B1).....655. TYTTTTITITITTTy e086 CUBA UN Discussions of Ocean Nodules Controversy Noted (Jose Bodes Gomez; PRISMA LATINOAMERICANO, Nov 80). .....6cc005s GUYANA Editorial Views Locaribe, Stresses LOS Cooperation (Editorial; GUYANA CHRONICLE, 8 Jan 81)... ...ccccccwcecwnees TTT Briefs Suriname Fishing JAMAICA Editorial Comments on ‘Law of the Sea’ (Editorial; THE SUNDAY GLEANER, 11 Jam B81)... . ccc ccc ccc nwnwnnee SUB-SAHA®RAN AFRICA SEYCHELLES

Seventy-two Vessels Apply for Fishing Rights (NATION, 12 Feb Bl)... cc ccccceeeweeeeeesseeeee occcccccccces














leeland “aroes Fishing Accord



Newspaper Analyzes Resulte of LOS Conference

(Rudolf Dolzer; FPRANKFURTER ALLGEMEINE, 5 Feb 81).....ceeeeeees

Fishing Industry Suffers From Lack of Quota Agreement


(DER SPIEGEL, 2 Feb Bl) icc cccccceec cece eeeeeeeeeeeeneeeeeneeees

Aegan Continental Shelf







[Text] The Soviet Union wants its fishing quota restored to the pre-Afghanistan embargo level and is optimistic that the New Zealand Government may agree.

But the director of the fisheries management division of the Ministry of Agri- culture and Fisheries, Mr Brian Cunningham, said the total allowable catch for all species of fin fish next year would probably be not too different from the current season.

The Government cut the Russian quota by about half to 32,500 tonnes after the United States called for trade embargoes on Russia in protest at the invasion of Afghanistan.

The ministry will discuss the foreign fin-fish quotas soon to set the quotas for the 1981-82 season, which begins at the end of March.

Under Quota

Yesterday, the Soviet Union's fisheries liaison officer, Mr Oleg Bakurin, said Russia's first wish was for the old quota to be restored.

Russian fishing boats working under the licensed quota system this season have been unable to take their full allocation.

Mr Bakurin said only about half of the quota (about 15,000 tonnes) would be taken because the fishing area allocated to its boats was a poor one.

Shortly after the Russian quota was slashed, the ministry also pulled out of a research project using several Russian trawlers.

Mr Bakurin said Russia was willing and ready to resume the project because his country was anxious to restore all bilateral relationships. But ministry sources suggest that Russia's chances of getting its old quota back are remote.

One official said the ministry wants to go through a period of consolidation for all foreign fishing.

it han already asked foreign joint=venture companies to make voluntary cute to their catches,

Japan will be happy if it can rete 'n ite 79,500-tonme quota next season, accord- ing to ite fisheries Liaison officer, Mr Takafumi Nobukuni.

Voluntary Cut

[t ie unlikely to take ite full allocation this year because of difficulties in maintaining catches in the southernmost and most rugged zone.

South Korea voluntarily cut its fishing effort this year for financial reasons and is expected to take only a small part of ite 25,500-tonne allocation.

It has plans to step up ite fin-fishing a Little next season.

CSO: 5200



Christchurch THE PRESS in English 27 Jan 81 p 5


PA Well agtor

The Governments fish. mt polcy caunng Da losses of export eamings from savuid, according to the Fieh Exporters’ Asso tiathoen

Tie assuciwlions pres: dent, Mr KR. Hartison, said the poles favoured for eon Th eased squid vescels wer te export-earning jonmt-venture Boats

Jont-venture fishermen were aleo concerned about the Government's decision to allow a Japanese fish

erves research team ty work om New Zealand waters this summer, he said.

Mr Harreon, who 6 also charmman of the gs venture committee of the

afood Processors and

there was concern that Japan wanted a big err fiohing quota in return for the research

He called for much more Government spend. ma on fisheries research so that joint-venture com. pemies had enourh infor mation on which to base toeir “wery expensive” in. vestment.

Mr Harrison sud for.

eign censed squid boals did not have to comply


wih Miniwtry of Trane port surveys or Minwtry ~~ yojoone regulat They could transier their cat. es into carrying boats af sea, unlike joint venture boats which had to return to port.

Ths effect was to nake ‘quid fishing by foreign. hoensea vessels more al- tractive than by joint-ven

tre Yer mnt ventures would give New Zealand experince in developing

the resource. and would eer good export money All New Zealand got from foreign-licensed veasels was the fee

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, Jan 14 (PA)--Experimental syuid fishing using nets rather than jig-


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Initial Catches Poor

Auckland THE NEW ZEALAND HERALD in English 29 Jan 81 p 8

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Taiwanese net- ting for squid, using nels up to 21 8


Two fishing the South Island about two weeks ago in a scheme to see if this method is more ef- fective than squid .

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THAI FISHERMEN CLAIM TO BE VICTIMs OF VISTNAMESE PIRATES Bangkok BAN MUANG in “hai 30 Jan 81 pp l, 2 LArticle: "Fishermen Appeal to RTN"]

_ Text] 1t has been disclosed that Vietnam regularly sends pirates to rob fishing bouts in Thai waters in the area of Pak Phanang District and nearby provinces in order to seize the boats and take the fish for food, Appeals have been made to the government to orderthe Navy to send some ships to patrol ,the area] and protect the fishermen, It has been revealed that Pak Phanang 1S a weakpoint that Vietnam can invade since it takes only 24 hours for boats to reach here.

Mx Phongsak ButScaranuwong, the president of the Pak Phanang

municipal council, and Mr suphot Klasukhon, a member of the Fishing Cooperative in Pak Phanang District, Nakhon Sithammarat Province, talked with reporters at parliament yesterday morning (29 January). They disclosed that, at present, it appears that pirates, who are thought to be Vietnamese soldiers, are using modern boats and

weapons to regularly rob Thai fishing boats. It has reached the point where the fishermen are afraid to go out to fish. This has been going on since the end of December, Fishermen who pass near Ka Island in Pak Phanang Disitrict are reqularly robbed. To date, more than 10 fishing boats have been robbed. This includes boats from Pattani, Lonckhla and Nakhon Sithammarat. Concerning the actions of these Vietnamese pirates, after robbing the fishermen, they seize the boats and take the fish too for food. As for the fishermen, in some cases, all the men aboard the fishing boat have been killed. In other cases, the fishermen have been set adrift in the sea. For example, in the case of the boats Named the "Phun Phon" and the "T. Laksana," 12 fishermen were Killed and only one survived. The value of the goods stolen is not known, gach boat was valued at almost 1 million baht but this does not include the value of the fish and other items,

Mr Phongsak also stated that, concerning the Vietnamese who are involved in this, it is certain that they are Vietnamese soldiers because they use weapons that are used on the battlefields, It is thought that they are engaging in such activities for three reasons: 1. They are doing this in order to see how well we patrol our territorial waters. 2. They want to terrorize the Thai people.

3. They want to seize food from Thailand and use it to feed their troops who are disculised as civilians or as Vietnamese refugees,

However, Mr Phongsak stated that each time Vietnamese pirates rob Thai fishermen, it is very easy for them to encer the area without any of our officials concerned being aware of it. They can come and go freely each time. This is different from the situation in Malaysia, Malaysia has very tough nalLional defense measures. Neither Vietnamese refugees nor anyone else can get in. If they enter MalaySia, they are immediately forced to leave. Strangers who slip in are immediately discovered and intercepted. As for us, Vietnamese refugees enter the country and live here for a long time before we find out, It is only when we see larje numbers of them walking on the beach that we find out! Our defense measures are very weak and it is very distressing

if somethine happens. In particular, the important thing is that the coast of Pak Phananc and the ceast of Vietnam are only 24 hours

away by boat. It is expected that during this coming March and April, large numbers of Vietnamese r-fugees will enter Thailand since, during this period, there are no storms, the winds are gentle and travelling by boat is very convenient.

Concerning defense measures, Mr Somphong stated that he would 1ike to propose that the qovernment quickly implement defense measures and put a stop to this. In particular, the Navy should send more ships to patrol the Gulf of Thailand; otherwise, larger and larger numbers of Vietnamese refucees will flow into Thailand, If they are allowed to enter Thailand and are not forced out or intercepted, this will

later create problems for the government, which will have to

solve the problens later. Concerning the government boats in Pak Phanang vistrict, at present, there is only one marine police boat but even it cannot be used because the government has not budgeted money to buy gasoline for it. As for the Vietnamese refugees in Pak Phanang, there were 120 people here and just recently more than 60 more refugees urrived,

11943 CSO: 5200



Rangoon THE WORKING PEOPLE'S DALLY in English 14 Feb 61 p 6



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OWO31451 Taipei CNA in English 1350 GMT 3 Mar 41

[Text] Taipei, 3 Mar (CNA)=<The Republic of China wante to take the initiative to

negotiate with the Philippines on the overlapping water areas between the economic sones of the two neighboring countries, Economics Minteter Chang Kwang-ehih eaid Tuesday.

Although Taipel and Manila maintain no formal diplomatic relations, there should be an agreement to settle all disagreements regarding fishing righte on the overlapping water areas, Chang pointed out, when anewering an interpellation at the Legislative Yuan, Chang said the Republic of China ie planning to send representatives to the Philippines to sort out matters in dispute, including the release of over 40 Taiwan fiehing boats detained by the Philippine authorities recently. The Republic of China te seeking 4 fishery cooperation project with the Philippines for @utual benefite, Chang said, adding that initial negotiations are underway.

Chang's remarke came one day after a statement by the Economice Ministry calling on fishermen to refrain from operating in the vicinity of the Baten Islands, north of the Phillipines, to avoid disputes. The statement aleo warned fishermen not to approach the “undefined” areas covered by the economic sones declared by the two countries.

CSO: 5200


PRAWN FISHING--Canberra.--The Federal Government would spend up to $100,000 on exploratory trawling in deep water off southeastern Australian for royal red prawne, The Federal Primary Industry Minister, Mr Nixon, said yesterday, the operation would be carried out in April and May off the coast between Robe, South Auetralia, and Strahan, Taemania. [Text] [Br‘ebane THE COURLER-MAIL in English 13 Jan 81 p 3)

cso: 5200




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CSO: 5200




PA252309 Madrid EFE in Spanieh 2234 GMT 24 Jan 6)

[Text] Cali, Colombia, 24 Jan (EFE)=-The foreign ministers of Chile, Peru, Beuador and Colombia today .ondemned the vielations to the )00—mile sea limite that each of their countries has set.

In 4 so-called Declaration of Cali, Ministers Rene Rojas Gaidames, Alfonso Barrera, Javier Arias and Diego Uribe, of Lite, Bewador, Peru and Colombia, respectively, rejected coercive measures imposed on the southern Pacific states in opposition to the OAS Charter and in international law.

The ministers noted with pleasure that the objectives and principles established in the “Declaration of Santiago” in 1952 have served as basis for a policy aimed at the decolonization of the seas and at 4 restructuring of the law of the sea to establish an equitable and just juridical order that gives special consideration to the interests of

the developing countries. The ministers agreed to continue working in a coordinated fashion to safeguard and consolidate their achievements.

The ministers note. that an international organization should protect, ae 4 common patrimony of mankind, the sea and ocean beds outside legal national limite to prevent the exploitation of resources from having adverse effefte on the economy and revenues of the developing coun- tries that export the products of this exploitation.

The ministers flatiy rejected wnilateral efforts to exploit seabeds and their subsoil, Which quest aot be appropriated by any state or any person and over Which no state or person can have any right.

The ministers noted that the international authority that would administer the sea and ocean beds gust not be the subject of control, or be subjected to the interests of a emall group of povere, but must be authentically democratic and @ust adequately represent the interests of the Third World countries.

Regarding the discussions presently taking place at the Third UN Conference on the Law of the Seca, the foreign ministers believe that their governments should jointly analyze the convention project [as received) to coordinate, as @uch as possible, the position of their countries on thie project, 48 well ae to initiate suitable actions for the final convention.

The South Pacific countries admitted efficient means gust be established to struggle against the contamination of the seas and agreed that they must increase their scientific research efforts. They aleo noted they are working on an understanding among their countries to contribute to the preservation and best utilisation of tuna, 4 resource at the free and sovereign disposal of the riparian countries.


The minieters reiterated their political support for the permanent committee of the South Pacific and noted the suitability of strengthening it and making it more effective, the basis of its present geographic ephere, it must continue to effectively unite ite

members countries, as well as the appropriate regional organization for the defense of sea interests,

The ministers made the office of the secretary general responsible for studying the challenges resulting from the new situation and for presenting at a special meeting suggestions on how to guarantee the required strengthening and effectiveness.

Finally, the foreign ministers agreed to meet periodically to strengthen the system and to coordinate the cea policies of their respective countries.

cso: 5200




CUBAN SHIPS WARNED ON 200-MILE LIMIT--Santiago, Chile, 23 Jan (AFP)<<It has been reported here that the Chilean Navy today warned that the Cuban fishing ships sighted yesterday near Chilean territorial waters run the risk of being captured and being assessed fines if they violate the 200-mile limit. Vice Adm Raul Lopez Silva, commander in chief of the navy and deputy member of the government junta, stressed that the navy keeps a very close watch over the maritime heritage of the nation, the integrity and wealth of which must be defended under any circum- stances. The admiral said that the Cuban ships, detected 230 miles from Mocha Island at 39 degrees south latitude, were outside Chilean territorial waters, which they have not yet violated. [Excerpt] [PY241514 Paris AFP in Spanish 0310 GMT 24 Jan 81)

CSO: 5200



EDITORIAL SEES SOVIET DESIG.S ON MAR DE CHILE Santiago EL MERCURIO in Spanish 27 Jan 81 p A-3 {[Editorial: "The Mar de Chile and the USSR")

(Text) The meeting in Cali, Colombia of the Permanent Commission for the Southern Pacific culminated in a declaration that besides reaffirming the policy of defend- ing the 200 miles of territorial waters, calls for adopting a series of measures to protect the wealth of fish life in the member countries, including the establishment of a joint naval force.

The uneasiness shown by the delegates from Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Chile started with the great powers’ growing interest in increasing their presence in the Southern Pacific, which usually results in non-selective fishing that is harm- ful to marine fauna.

However, it is not only an interest in obtaining a larger supply of products from the sea that leads some of these powers tokeep their small fleets opposite our coast. Chile has discovered a disturbing political and military tendency in the operations of Soviet ships and those of other Communist nations that are stationed facing the territorial waters limit.

Last summer a Soviet ship settled in Mar de Drake which is an essentiel passage uniting the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. A Soviet ship was apparently assigned to scientific research, but it turned out to be provided with advanced electronic equipment for interceptir or destroying direct or satellite communications and for carrying out other more complex and undetermined tasks in the information field.

In the Soviet naval strategy to control and dominate the sea lanes, special importance is given to the Mar de Chile. Already, during the Popular Unity government, Soviet ships were operating on our coast in noticeable numbers under the pretext of researching fishin, but they were really interested in searching for suitable areas for submarine operations.

In its zealous surveillance of our coastline, the National Navy has discovered the presence, sinch March 1979, of 106 boats from the Soviet orbit, which are partly fishing and partly scientific ships, in the vicinity of the 200 mile limit. Some of them are genuine floating factories with a large storage capacity. They


perform drag fishing, averaging 30 tone each time, without any selectivity regarding the species caught.

Right now 19 Cuban boasts are operating opposite off Concepcion, They have not crossed the 200 mile limit, but their operations have already been discovered and the Navy is carefully following their movements in order to seize them in case they violate Chilean territorial waters.

Since they are beyond our economic zone and territorial waters, the Cuban boats are completely free to operate, but thie activity ca: have harmful repercussions on our fish resources. Otherwise, as acting Command. in Chief of the Navy, Vice Admiral Raul Lopez Silva pointed out, it is always possible that the Cuban boats are carrying out spying missions.

The aforementioned demonstrates the need to strengthen protectic.. of the Chilean fishing potential and of the still undetermined wealth that lies at the ocean bottom off our coast, for which purpose the country must have enough resources available.

The agreements adopted on this subject by the Permanent Commission for the Southern Pacific are strengthened by the full agreement on proposals among the commission's four member countries, now including Colombia, thus reaffirming the joining of interests and pointe of view on defending the weath of the sea.

9545 CSO: 5200




[Text] A little over a century ago scientists discovered polymetallic nodules on the ocean floor, but it will be a few years before this wealth can be utilized by mankind,

For a long time the search for those submerged minerals was impossible because of lack of technical resources, Later, methods to extract the nodules were invented, but that operation was too costly to attract investors.

Finally, in the closing years of this 20th century, the technical and commercial conditions necessary to awaken interest in mineral exploration on the ocean floor have been achieved.

The question now is whether this new production will be used for the benefit of mankind in its entirety or for only an infinitesimal part thereof--namely, the transnational corporations,

According to preliminary calculations, entirely feasible to implement, there are on the ocean floor reserves of copper, manganese cobalt, nickel and other valuable metals which in some cases surpass the quantiiies which have been discovered on land. This means that as new exploration methods are perfected, even greater deposits will appear.

Only 10 years ago the United Nations agreed to consider the ocean resources as the patrimony of all mankind, and shortly thereafter, the Third Conference on the Law of the Sea got under way in Caracas.

The work of this conference went much further than was foreseen, and each year ends with the frustration of not having been the decisive year in which a new maritime agreement was obtained. However, it must be said that 1980 will end with less bitterness than previous years, since the debates on the sea have made important advances in the last few months.

For the first time the industrialized countries and the developing nations have come to an agreement regarding the manner of voting in the future council of the International Maritime Authority. A policy has also been designed with a view to limiting production from the ocean floor, to alleviate its negative effect on land producers.


For the countries which produce nickel, copper and other metals which are also found on the ocean floor, this limitation does not satisfy their demands made in previous sessions, but the agreement reached doubtless represents a more positive formula than what had initially been proposed to the Conference, In addition, there is still the possibility that compensatory clauses for countries affected by the new competition will be approved, Some experts believe that in the first stages of exploitation the minerals extracted from the ocean floor will be barely one-fourth of what is produced on land,

As for nickel, one of the formulas proposed is that mining companies may only extract an amount equivalent to three-fifths of the market increase, the other two- fifths being reserved for the traditional producers.

With respect to other metals found in the ocean nodules, such as copper, cobalt and manganese, their activity will depend on what develops with nickel, so that mining investment will not lean disproportionately in favor of some metals, while ignoring the extraction of others,

Recognition by the international community that there must be an authority, accepted by all the states, which regulates the exploitation of the oceans, means a great step forward for other sectors of world economic life. The idea was resisted at first by the developed capitalist countries, which opposed any type of control so that the transnational firms might have complete freedom in this new venture.

The discussions in the Conference of the Sea have been long and difficult, due to the diversity of interests it is attempting to conciliate. In the first place, ocean mining must not become one more factor of disadvantage for the underdeveloped countries, much less depress the prices of those metals on which a good part of the economy of those nations depends.

The industrialized capitalist countries, in turn, have tried to press for an agree- ment which would be so broad and flexible that its clauses would not involve any sort of compromise. At the same time, the governments of the United States and the Federal Republic of Germany have arjproved domestic legislation authorizing their own firms to begin sounding and exploitation of ocean resources, while the inter- national convention has not yet been approved. Measures of this kind are a flagrant violation of the agreements made in the United Nations itself.

Among the questions pending solution is the thorny problem of the European Economic Community, which wants to be admitted as a bloc. Actually the behavior of this nine-nation economic group, as we saw in the case of sugar and other basic products, has had very negative effects on the interests of the underdeveloped countries, and this causes its current ambitions to be viewed with well-founded suspicion by most of the states participating in the conference.

In spite of all this, the negotiations appear to be approaching their culmination, and just the fact that the conference has succeeded in regulating the activities of the transnational firms in this area will be a victory for the socialist countries and the so-called Third World.

8735 CSO: 3010



EDITORIAL VIEWS [OCARIBE, STRESSES LOS COOPERATION Georgetown GUYANA CHRONICLE in English 8 Jan 81 p 6 |Editorial: "The Promise From the Sea")

[Text] Guyana's membership of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission's Association for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions [IOCARIBE] is proof of govern- ment's awareness of the rich marine harvests the ocean can yield and of its determination to gather in that harvest for the benefit of the nation.

However, no country, developing or developed, can assay this stupendous task alone. The involvement of oceanographers, marine biologists and geologists, technicians and researchers is necessary for the resources of the earth's oceans and seas are boundless; fish shrimp and fossil fuel are but fringe benefits, according to scientific opinion founded on proof.

Realising this, nations have come together for united and peaceful endeavours aimed at plumbing the depths of the sea for development of its potential, espe- cially in the area of food. We say ‘peaceful endeavours’ for not unexpectedly, tensions had arisen between countries as regards territorial boundaries and in- fringement of rights, among other crucial issues. United Nations conferences on the Law of the Sea, for years the forum for heated debate, have at last reached agreement on a number of these issues and ushered in a new Ocean Regime. The role which IOCARIBE will play in this regime was a priority topic at a recent meeting in Cacun, Mexico for it is a role of commitment and responsibility for Guyana and other developing countries. Underlying this role, is the ultimate intention of enhancing the marine science capabilities of developing member states of IOCARIBE.

Reports from the Mexico meeting which was in its third session, disclosed that the delegates stressed the importance of developing regional programmes on ocean dynamics and recommended projects in the field of [word illegible] biology and living resovrces, in support of fishing and related industries. The meeting paid special attention to marine pollution, geology and information exchange, among other matters.

Guyana and other member countries will benefit from training programmes for scientific and technical personnel and will participate in an action plan


involving the Caribbean, an environmental programme sponsored by the UN and the Economic Commission for Latin America,

These insights furnish an idea of the work envisaged by the IOCARIBE. They tell of united efforts in a sphere of development that is vitally important to

this hard-pressed nation as it is to the other, eighteen member-countries for those efforts hold promise of bountiful harvests.

CSO: 5200




SURINAME FISHING--Over 32 Guyanese fishermen have received licences from the Suriname Government to operate in the Corentyne in 1981. The licences were recently renewed in Nickerie. According to Comrade Kumar, secretary to the Upper Corentyne Fishermen Co-operative Society, several fishermen have not

yet been granted licences. Meanwhile the 15 Guyanese fishermen who were arrested last month when Suriname police seized four of their fishing vessels are due to appear in a Suriname court on January 19. GNA [Text] [Georgetown GUYANA CHRONICLE in English 9 Jan 61 p 11)

CSO: $200



EDITORIAL COMMENTS ON ‘LAW OF THE SBA‘ Kingeton THE SUNDAY GLEANER in English 11 Jan 81 p 8 [Editorial: “The Law of the Sea")

[Text] What is the latest on the “Law of the Sea”? In 1970 when the United Nations declared that the “oceans are the common heritage of mankind," this set the stage for development of the Law of the Sea Treaty which began in 1979.

Since that time over 160 nations have been meeting regularly to hammer out the details of an acceptable treaty, which is designed to control the exploitation of the sea's resources. Oil, gas and metallic substances particularly “ocean nodules" and sunken treasures are some of the major areas of intent.

Dr Rattray and Mr Robinson of the Attorney General's Department have been Jamaica's major advocates at the international discussions.

Jamaica has much to gain or lose from the outcome of the treaty insofar as the control of its territorial waters is concerned. It is high time that Jamaica's interest is consolidated and the public be assure’ that Jamaica's position has been adequately taken care of even at this time.

cso: 5200





SEVENTY: TWO foreign fish

ing boats, meo'uding two from the Soviet Union, have applied io fish in Seychelles exclusive waters

The acting Chief Fusheries Offer, Mr. Aubrey Harris,


sirict’y on accordance with the fisheries decree of 1979," Mr Harris said. adding that each vessel was required to pay a lence fee of R. SO for each gross = registered §=ton per month “In general. the licen- wed \cwe's now operating in Seychelles pay between R. 20,000 and R. 250,000 per month.

Seyeheliow = ollicm's have been geployed to monitor the activiues of cach fishing veasel to ensure that fishing opera tions are carried out im the letter and spirit of the 1979 decree on firhing operations by foreigners

Mr. Harris said as a result of the Law of the Sea Confe rence, the resources within the EEZ which “we cannot ourselves adequately exp'oit” have been made available to interested parties to fish with the necessary payment of a hoence.

The fisheries officer said only lareer tuna were involved in the foreign fishing exercise. which goes by season.

He explained that October to May was the season most preferred by foreign fishing boats because more tuna were avaiable in Seychellois waters.

The Soviets have appled and paid for a provisional one month fishing facility They are expected to renew their

license for the average period of three months.



ICELAND=FAROES FISHING ACOCORD=-A twoeday round of ministry-level talke in Reykjavik, around the middle of last month, ended with the signing of an Icelandic- Faroese fisheries accord for 1961, But, interestingly, some press stories on the development failed to mention the main point of the agreement: the exact take of demersal (bottom) species from Icelandic waters that had been authorized for Faroese operators, If that was an oversight on the part of the writers, it seemed significant enough. Foreign catches of demersal fish from waters surrounding this country--a burning issue not so many years ago--had dwindled to a level that was indeed negligible in any historical perspective, The new quota for Faroese fisher- men was just 17 thousand tons--besides a reciprocal deal involving 20 thousand tons of blue whiting, a migratory pelagic species seen as holding out a notable promise, The agreement was virtually a carbon copy of last year's, and included diverse provisions on co-operation between the two nations. All foreign demersal catches from Icelandic waters in 1980 came to just some 24 thousand tons, part of which were tiny quotas granted to Norway and Belgium, By contrast, foreign vessels, especially British and West German trawlers, were reported to have taken 384 thousand tons near this country in 1970. Iceland unilaterally extended its fish- eries jurisdiction to 50 nautical miles in 1972, and to 200 miles three years later, Both moves led to British naval interference with patrol vessels, but foreign fish- ing inside this country's present resources zone became minimal by late 1977, (Text) (Reykjavik NEWS FROM ICELAND in English Feb 81 p 1)

CSO: 5200



NEWSPAPER ANALYZES RESULTS OF LOS CONFERENCE Prankfurt, Main FRANKFURTER ALLGEMEINE in German 5 Feb 81 p 8 [Article by Dr Dr Rudolf Dolzer: “The High Seas To Remain Free for All Nations")

[Text] In today's practice, moderniem in law ie mostly characterized through striv- ing for an improved balance of interests, through differentiation, complexity and blowing up of norms. For the person subject to the law it frequently results in a lack of visibility and loss of freedom. If proof were needed that thie is so, addi- tional evidence, it could be found in an almost exemplary form in the recent develop- ments of the international law regarding order on the seas. Traditional regulations dating from the time before 1945 dealt essentially with two categories: the high seas ard coastal waters. On the high seas practically everything was permitted, with respect to coastal waters the border state had exclusive rights. The planned new Law of the Sea Convention is to be altogether different: It is to consist of

a treaty with 320 articles as well as 7 appendices with 107 additional regulations.

Just 15 years ago, only a limited revision rather than a total overhaul of the Maritime Law was contemplated. The economic use of the bottom of the sea was to be put under the concept of the “joint heritage of mankind" and, consequently, re- moved from the grasp of technologically advanced countries. Nevertheless, when agreement was reached in principle, it soon became apparent that the mandate of a new Maritime Law Conference could not be restricted to the bottom of the sea. The existing order on the seas was not universally accepted anyway, and, furthermore, reciprocal claims to various norms regarding territory within the Law of the Sea could easily be used as an argument in favor of a comprehensive examination of the existing lav.